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Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Имаго  (Biston betularia)


class Insecta subclass Pterygota infraclass Neoptera superorder Holometabola order Lepidoptera superfamily Geometroidea family Geometridae subfamily Ennominae tribe Bistonini genus Biston → species Biston betularia

Species name(s)

Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758) = Biston betularius (Linnaeus, 1758) = Phalaena betularia Linnaeus, 1758. [9, 10]

Peppered Moth.



This species marks on the maps: 5.

Zoogeographical regions


Russia regions

#1. Kaliningradsky; #3. Karelsky; #4. Evropeisky Severo-Zapadny; #6. Evropeisky Severo-Vostochny; #7. Evropeisky yuzhno-tayozhny; #8. Evropeisky Tsentralny; #9. Evropeisky Tsentralno-Chernozyomny; #10. Sredne-Volzhsky; #11. Volgo-Donsky; #13. Zapadno-Kavkazsky; #14. Vostochno-Kavkazsky; #16. Sredne-Uralsky; #17. Yuzhno-Uralsky; #19. Sredneobsky; #20. Yuzhno-Zapadnosibirsky; #21. Severo-Yeniseisky*; #22. Krasnoyarsky; #23. Predaltaisky; #24. Gorno-Altaisky; #25. Tuvinsky; #26. Predbaikalsky; #27. Pribaikalsky; #28. Zabaikalsky; #36. Sredne-Amursky; #37. Nizhne-Amursky; #38. Sakhalin; #39. Yuzhno-Kurilsky; #40. Primorsky.

* An asterisk denotes a region for which the species is listed as an migrant or information that requires additional checking.

Forewing length

27—30 mm.

Primary colors

Brown/Gray/Black, White.

Flight time

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Имаго  (Biston betularia)

Detailed information with references

Taxonomy, synonyms and combinations

  • Amphidasis huberaria Ballion, 1866 [156].


  • Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Corsica, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and the Soviet Union - the European part, Finland, France , Czech Republic, Switzerland, Sweden, Estonia, Yugoslavia. [1].
  • Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the British Isles, France, Germany, Greece (mainland), Denmark (mainland), Ireland, Spain (mainland), Italy (mainland), Corsica, Latvia , Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (mainland)Channel Islands, Poland, Portugal (mainland), Russia, Romania, Northern Ireland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Finland, France (mainland), Croatia, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Sweden, Estonia, Yugoslavia. [10].
  • Regions of the Russian Federation: the Volga-Don, East Caucasus, Gorno-Altaisk, the European North-East, the European North-West, the European Central Black Earth, the European Central European South taiga, Transbaikalia, Western Caucasus, Kaliningrad, Karelia, Krasnoyarsk, Nizhne-Amur, Prealtay,Of Baikal, Pribaikalskiy, Primorye, Sakhalin, the North-Yenisei (?) Mid-Amur, the Volga-Average, Average Urals, Sredneobskaya, Tuva, South West Siberian Yuzhno-Kuril, South Ural. [3].
  • Areal - Europe to South and Central Finland, Scandinavia to the north. [5].

Imago Habitus and Differences from alike species

  • A large butterfly with a length of the front wing to 3 cm physique like aBiston stratariaand color - on the bark of a tree, overgrown with lichen. Males also strongly mustache comb. [5].

General info about Imago

  • Peppered moth flies at night in birch, deciduous and deciduous-mixed forest, as well as in gardens and parks. [5].

Imago lifespan

  • From mid-May to late July. [5].

General info about Larva

  • Caterpillar Biston betularia like a twig, has two horns on its head and sharp growths on the body, active at night, during the day - still. [5].

Larva food plants / other food objects

  • Betula, Salix, Populus, Quercus, Alnus, Ulmus, Prunus, Crataegus, Rhamnus, Tilia, Sorbus, Rubus, Trifolium, Vaccinium, Artemisia, Lupinus, Rosa, Ribes, Spiraea. [28].
  • Birch and oak, ash and elm, buckthorn and blackthorn. [5].

Subspecies of Biston betularia


Initial species uploading to the site: Peter Khramov.

Photos: Svyatoslav Knyazev.

Text data: Peter Khramov, Alexandr Zhakov.

The species characteristics formalization: Peter Khramov.



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18.10.2015 21:00, Irina Nikulina

There should be a list of subspecies tidy - a lot of repetition and incorrect spellings

26.07.2009 10:41, Vasiliy Feoktistov

Butterfly is interesting because it can yavlyatsya kind of indicator of the state of the environment (the so-called "industrial melanism") - in places where a clean environment is lighter in color, and in places with dirty (the city) has tёmnyy- almost black.

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